let him BIOLOGY WORLD: EUKARYOTIC & PROKARYOTIC CELLS

Thursday, 14 December 2017

EUKARYOTIC & PROKARYOTIC CELLS

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    EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Eukaryotic cells are such cells that contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and whose DNA is bound together by proteins into chromosomes. It also contains all the cell organelles.

Some characteristics of Eukaryotic cell:-

1) true nucleus is present.

2) histone protein is present.

3) cell size is very large.

4) all the cell organelles are present.

5) Protein synthesis occur in cytoplasm mitochondria and chloroplast.

6) ribosome of cytoplasm is 80S type where as that in mitochondria and chloroplast is 70S type.

7) cytoskeletal structures are present

8) exocytosis and endocytosis are present (in animals).

9) cell division occur by Amitosis, Mitosis and Meiosis.

Examples of Eukaryotic cell:-

All the plant cell and Animal cell.

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    PROKARYOTIC CELLS


Prokaryotic cells are cells that do not have a true nucleus and membrane bound cell organelles. Organisms that have prokaryotic cells are unicellular and called prokaryotes.

Here is a some  characteristics of prokaryotic cells:- 

1) True nucleus is absent only nucleoid is present . It contains single DNA molecule that is circular DNA.

2) Histone protein is absent.

3) Nuclear envelope and nucleolus absent.

4) Typically prokaryotic cells range from 0.1 to 5 micrometres in diameter and are significantly smaller than Eukaryotic cells.

5) Membrane bound organelles are absent.

6) Protein synthesis occur in cytoplasm.

7) Ribosome is 70s type.

8) Cytoskeletal structures are absent.

9) Exocytosis and endocytosis and absent.

10) Cell division occur by amitosis, mitosis and meiosis are absent.


Some examples of prokaryotic cells:-

Bacteria, archaea.

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        MESOKARYOTIC CELLS

Mesokaryotic cells are cells that have both prokaryotic and Eukaryotic properties.

1)Prokaryotic property:- Histone protein is absent.

2) Eukaryotic property:-Nuclear envelope and nucleolus are present.

In mesokaryotes nuclear envelope and nucleolus are present even during cell division, chromosome remains condensed throughout the cell cycle.

Example of mesokaryotic cell:- Dinoflagellates.

Pic of a Dinoflagellate


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